Is the universe deterministic or is it probabilistic? Do we have free will or are we just puppets in the hand of a Super Intelligence?
These are questions that are not new.
The Greeks, the Indians the Muslims, all had their share in explaining this enigma.
And now we have Quantum Mechanics. If there was just one thing we all need to know about Quantum Mechanics, it
is: that QM says that the universe is probabilistic at the base level. This to me as a Muslim is the best tool to understand what has been the most ambiguous part of Islam ie Qadr, which is wrongly translated as predestination or destiny and how to reconcile that with our free will.
Again, Qm will serve as just new language to articulate an old concept. Medieval Islamic texts on predestination and free will
always have references to the Islamic atomism. Keep in mind that Western science did not accept the existence of atoms up until early 1900’s. In contrast earlier traditions like those of the Greeks, the Indians and Islamic Science already had concrete atomic theories.
Muslim atomism had the distinction of quantizing everything. Matter space and even time, 900 years before Quantum Mechanics. To understand how QM explains our free will and Destiny have this we need two things:
Firstly a universe that is elastic and probabilistic enough to comply with our free will.
Secondly, in order to reconcile God’s foreknowledge (destiny) with our free will, there has to be something within us which should have access to the universe at the fundamental level.
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A Mechanical engineer seeking to understand the fabric of reality